Cover Image

Review on few South Indian medicinal plants as antimicrobial agents

Phani Kumari Uddandapu*, Venkateswar Rao, Y., Chandrasekhara Naidu K.

Abstract


The Plant kingdom is a storehouse of potential drugs. Plant derived medicines have made large contributions to human health and well-being. They play dual role in the development of new drugs. At first they act as a natural blueprint for the development of new drugs and secondly they can be used for the treatment of infectious diseases. Many evidences gathered from earlier studies which confirmed that the presence of variety of phytochemicals in plants contribute medicinal properties. In this present review, an attempt has been made to give an overview of few south Indian medicinal plants and their phytochemicals which are useful in the treatment of several infectious diseases.

Keywords


South Indian, Medicinal Plants, Antibacterial, Antimicrobial

Full Text:

PDF

References


Rajendran Darling Anpin Raja, Solomon Jeeva, Juststella Wilfred Prakash, Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy, Varaprasadam Irudayaraj. Antibacterial activity of selected ethanomedicinal plants from South India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Volume 4, issue 5, May 2011, Pages: 375-378.

Indu M.N, Hatha A.A.M., Abirosh C., Harsha U., Vivekanandan G. Antimicrobial activity of some of the South -Indian spices against Serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, Volume 37 no.2 Saopaulo, April/June 2006, pages:153-158.

Priscila Ikeda Ushimaru, Mariama Tomaz Nogueira da Silva, Luiz Claudo Di Stasi, Luciano Barbosa, Ary Fernandes Junior. Antibacterial activity of Medicinal plant extracts. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, Volume 38 no.4 Saopaulo, October/December 2007, pages: 717-719.

Hema. T.A., Arya. A.S, Subha Suseelan, John Celestinal. R.K and Divya. P.V. Antibacterial activity of Five South Indian Medicinal Plants against Clinical Pathogens. International Journal of Pharma and Biosciences, 4 (1), Jan 2013, Pages: 70-80.

Jamuna Bai A., Ravishankar Rai V and Pradeepa V. Samaga. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of three medicinal plants of South India. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, Vol 7 (1), 2011, Pages: 14-18.

Narayanan A.S., Raja S.S.S., Ponmurugan K., Kandekar S.C., Natarajaseenivasan K., Maripandi A. and Mandeel Q.A. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Beneficial Microbes, 2 (3), September 2011, pages: 53-61.

Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen. H., Hansi Priscilla.D., Kavitha Thirumurugan. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of Selected Indian folk Medicinal planats. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research, vol.1 (10), 2010, pages:430-434.

Jeyachandran R., Mahesh A., Cindrella L., Sudhakar S. and Pazhanichamy K. Antibacerial activity of plumbagin and root extracts of Plumbago zeylanica. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia series Botanic, 51/1, 2009, pages: 17-22.

Doss A., Dhanabalan R., Sasikumar, Palaniswamy M., Geetha V. and Ayyappa Das M.P. Screening for Antibacterial activity of Twelve Medicinal plants used in South India Folkloric Medicine. Pharmacologyonline 1: 2009, pages: 83-89.

Natchimuthu Karmegam, Mani Jayakumar and Subbiah Karuppusamy. Synergistic antibacerial activity of four medicinal plants collected from Dharapuram Taluk of Tiruppur District, South India. Journal of Plant Sciences, 7, 2012, pages: 32-38.

Thenmozhi K., Saradha M., Manian.S, Paulsamy.S. Invitro Antimicrobial potential of Root extracts of the medicinal plant species, Emilia sonchifolia (Linn.) DC. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical research, vol.6, Issue 3, 2013, pages: 149-151.

Kadhar Nivas R. and Boominathan M. Antimicrobial evaluation of selected South Indian medicinal plants against Streptococcus pneumoniae. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, volume 4, number 3,2015, pages: 835-840.

Kavitha R., Kamalakannan P., Deepa T., Elamathi R., Sridhar S., Suresh kumar J. Invitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Indian Medicinal plant Couroupita guianensis Aubl. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 3 (6), 2011, pages: 115-121.

Hema.T.A., Shiny M. and Parvathy J. Antimicrobial activity of leaves of Azima tetracantha against clinical pathogens. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical ciences, vol.4, Issue 4, 2012, pages: 317-319.

Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Muniappan Ayyanar and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu. Antimicrobial activity of some ethanomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India.BMC complementary and Alternative Medicine, 6:35, 2006, pages: 1-7.

Parmar Namitha, Rawat Mukesh. Medicinal plants used as antimicrobial agents: A Review. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3 (1), 2012, pages: 31-40.

Praveen Dahiya, Sharmishtha Purkayastha. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial potentials of Alangium salvifolium and Piper longum against multidrug resisttant bacteria from clinicl isolates. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical sciences, vol.3, suppl5, 2011, pages: 462-465.

Naresh Maharjan, Anjanasingh, Mangala D. Manandhar, Shaila Basnyat, Binod Lekhak and Surya K. Kalauni. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of medicinal plants. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology, vol.13, No.2, 2012, pages: 209-214.

Riazunnisa K., Adilakshmamma U., Habeeb Khadri C. Phytochemical Analysis and Invitro antibacterial activity of Soymida febrifuga (Roxb.) Juss. and Hemidesmus indicus (L.). Indian Journal of Applied Research, vol.3, Issue:12, December 2013, pages: 57-59.

Krishna Rao.M., Aniel Kumar.O. and Mutyala Naidu L. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Alangium salviifoliium L. Roots. International Journal of Advanced Reserch in Science and Technology, volume.2, Issue.2, 2013, pages: 88-91.

Ninad Moon, Prasad SSV., Srikanth Guduguntla, Rajender A., Archana Moon, Srilakshmi Sela. The multidrug resistance of periodontitis causing microorganisms with phytochemical derived from Soyamida febrifuga. Journal of Research and advancement in Dentistry, 2:3s, 2013, pages: 13-21.

Selvam K.A., Kolanjinathan K. Antibacterial activity of Mangrove medicinal plants against Gram positive bacterial pathogens. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences, 1 (8), 2014, pages: 234-241.

Rajendar Singh D.S.R., Shiva Kumar Singh P., Vidyasagar G.M. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Alangium Salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin. International Journal of Research in Plant Science, 4 (4), 2014, pages: 77-80.

Preethi Tiwari. Antimicrobial activity of Amritarishta prepared by Traditional and Modern Methods. Asian Journal of Pharm.Res., vol.4, Issue:2, 2014, pages: 114-116.

Nagaprashanthi. Ch., Rafi Khan.P., Gopichand.K., Aleemuddin MA., Rajiya Begum.G. In vitro Antimicrobial activity of Tinospora cordifolia and its phytochemical screening. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research, vol.4, No.3, July-Sept 2012, pages: 1004-1008.

Babeet Singh Tanwer, Satyapal Singh, Rekha Vijayvergia. Antibacterial and Antifungal activity of some medicinally important plants. International Journal of Pharma and Biosciences, 3 (3): (B), 2012 July, pages: 555-561.

Jinu John, Upadhayay A., Kurian T.O., Mehta A., Mehta P., Mallick A. and Shukla S. Phytochemical analysis and Antimicrobial property of Lantana camera Leaves. Abstracts of 95th Indian Science Congress, Part-II, Section of New Biology, 2008, page:2.

Uma Maheswari J., Stalin S. and Priya K. Screening of phytoconstituents and antibacterial activity of leaves of Alternanthera sessilis. Abstracts of 95th Indian Science Congress, Part-II, Section of New Biology, 2008, page:3.

Prathiksha B.R., Chandan S., Panduranga Murthy G., Shivalingaiah and Sudarshana M.S. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity in Roots of Aristolichia indica L. –An Indian Birthwort. Abstracts of 95th Indian Science Congress, Part-II, Section of New Biology, 2008, page:6.

Sampath Kumar P., Prabhakaran K. and Veena V. Antihepatotoxic activity of Lippia nodiflora – A study. Abstracts of 95th Indian Science Congress, Part-II, Section of New Biology, 2008, page:15.

Parvataneni Radhika. Antimicrobial Screening of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) Root Extracts. Abstracts of 95th Indian Science Congress, Part-II, Section of New Biology, 2008, page:29.

Goswami S., Paul A., Chinniah A., Bhakuni, P.K. Das P.K. and Khanuja S.P.S. Anti Helicobacter pylori activity of artemisinin derivatives. Abstracts of 95th Indian Science Congress, Part-II, Section of New Biology, 2008, page:33.

Ingle R.B., Dhanokar M.A. and Musaddiq. Studies on Different Plant Extracts to Control the Antibiotic Resistance Strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Abstracts of 95th Indian Science Congress, Part-II, Section of New Biology, 2008, page:37.

Mishra S.H., Ingle R.B. and Musaddiq M. Search for Alternative Remedies to Fight Against Predominant Burn Infectious Pathogens. Abstracts of 95th Indian Science Congress, Part-II, Section of New Biology, 2008, page:38. Aethu

Richa Shri, Manjeet Singh and Anupam Sharma. Anti-Anxiety Evaluation of Extracts of Aethusa cynapium. Abstracts of 95th Indian Science Congress, Part-II, Section of New Biology, 2008, page:67.

Marjorie Murphy Cowan. Plant products as Antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.12, No. 4, October 1999, pages:564-582.

Ahmed A.A., Mahmoud A.A., Williams H.I., Scott A.I., Reibenspies J.H., and Mabry T.J. New Sesquiterpene methylene lactones from the Egyptain plant Jasonia candicans. J. Nat. Prod. 56: 1993, 1276-1280.

Amarl J.S., Ekins A., Richards S.R., and Knowles R. Effect of selected monoterpenes on methane oxidation, denitrification, and aerobic metabolism by bacteria in pure culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 1998, 520-525.

Atta-ur-Rahman and Choudhary M.I. Diterpenoid and steroidal alkaloids. Nat. Prod. Rep. 12: 1995, 361-379.

Aureli, P., Costantini A., and Zolea S. Antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. J. Food Prot. 55: 1992, 344-348.

Ayafor J.F., Tchuendem M.H.K., and Nyasse B. Novel bioactive diterpenoids from Aframomum aulacocarpos. J. Nat. Prod.57: 1994, 917-923.

Barre, J.T., Bowden B.F., Coll J.C., Jesus J., Fuente V.E., Janairo G.C., and Ragasa C.Y. A bioactive triterpene from Lantana camara. Phytochemistry 45: 1997, 321-324.

Batista O., Duarte A., Nascimento J., and Simones M.F. Structure and antimicrobial activity of diterpenes from the roots of Plectranthus hereroensis. J. Nat. Prod. 57: 1994, 858-861.

Berkada B. Preliminary report on warfarin for the treatment of herpes simplex. J. Irish Coll. Phys. Surg. 22 (Suppl.):56, 1978.

Borris R.P. Natural products research: perspectives from a major Pharmaceutical company. J. Ethnopharmacol. 51: 1996, 29-38.

Bosland P.W. Chiles: history, cultivation and uses. In G. Charalambous (ed.), Spices, herbs and edible fungi. Elsevier, New York, N. Y, 1994, 347-366.

Brantner A., Males Z., Pepeljnjak S., and Antolic A. Antimicrobial activity of Paliurus spina-christi mill. J. Ethanopharmacol. 52: 1996, 119-122.

Casley-Smit J.R., and J.R. Casley-Smith. Coumarin in the treatment of lymphoedema and other high-protein oedemas. In O’ Kennedy R. and Thornes R.D. (ed.), Coumarins: biology, applications and mode of action. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1997, p. 348.

Chaurasia, S.C., and Vyas K.K. 1977. In vitro effect of some volatile oil against Phytophthora parasitica var. Piperina. J. Res. Indian Med. Yoga Homeopath. 1977: 24-26.

Coe S.D. America’s first cuisines. University of Texas Press, Austin, 1994.

Cordell G.A., and Araujo O.E. Capsaicin: identification, nomenclature, and pharmacotherapy. Ann. Pharmacother. 27: 1993, 330-336.

Critchfield J.W., Butera S.T., and Folks T.M. Inhibition of HIV activation in latently infected cells by flavonoid compounds. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 12:39, 1996.

De Pasquale R., Germano M.P., Keita A., Sanogo R., and Iauk L. Antiulcer activity of Pteleopsis suberosa. J. Ethnopharmacol. 47: 1995, 55-58.

Dixon R.A., Dey P.M., and Lamb C.J. Phytoalexins: enzymology and molecular biology. Adv. Enzymol. 55: 1983, 1-69.

Duke J.A. Handbook of medicinal herbs. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., 1985.

Fernandez M.A., Garcia M.D., and Saenz M.T. Antibacterial activity of the phenolic acids fraction of Scrophularia frutescens and Scrophularia sambucifolia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 53: 1996, 11-14.

Fessenden R.J., and J.S. Fessenden. Organic chemistry, 2nd ed. Willard Grant Press, Boston, Mass., 1982.

Freiburghaus F., Kaminsky R., Nkunya M.H.H., and Brun R. Evaluation of African medicinal plants for their in vitro trypanocidal activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 55: 1996, 1-11.

Fujioka T., and Kashiwada Y. Anti-AIDS agents. 11. Betulinic acid and platanic acid as anti-HIV principles from Syzigium claviflorum, and the anti-HIV activity of structurally related triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod. 57: 1994, 243-247.

Geissman T. A. Flavonoid compounds, tannins, lignins and related compounds. In M. Florkin and E. H. Stotz (ed.), Pyrrole pigments isoprenoid compounds and phenolic plant constituents, Elsevier, New York, N.Y., vol.9, 1963, p.265.

Ghosha S., Krishna Prasad B.N., and Lakshmi V. Antiamoebic activity of piper longum fruits against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo. J. Ethnopharmacol. 50: 1996, 167-170.

Habtemariam S., Gray A.I., and Waterman P.G. A new antibacterial sesquiterpene from Premna oligotricha. J. Nat. Prod. 56: 1993, 140-143.

Harrigan G. G., Ahmad A., Baj N., Glass T.E., Gunatilaka A.A.L., and Kingston D.G.I. Bioactive and other sesquiterpenoids from Porella corna. J. Nat. Prod. 56: 1993, 921-925.

Harris R.S. Vitamins K. In M. Florkin and E. Stotz (ed.), Pyrrole pigments, isoprenoid compounds and phenolic plant consstituents, Elsevier, New York, N.Y., vol.9, 1963, 192-198.

Hasegawa H., Matsumiya S., Uchiyama M., Kurokawa T., Inouye Y., asai R., Ishibashi S., and Yamasaki K. Inhibitory effect of some triterpenoid saponins on glucose transport in tumor cells and its application to in vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activities. Planta Med. 6: 1994, 240-243.

Haslam E. Natural Polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: possible modes of action. J. Nat. Prod. 59: 1996, 205-215.

Himejima M., K. Hobson K.R., Otsuka T., Wood D.L., and Kubo I. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine trees Pinus ponderosa: a defense mechanism against microbial invasion. J. Chem. Ecol. 18: 1992, 1809-1818.

Hoult J.R.S., and Paya M. Pharmacological and biochemical actions of simple coumarins: natural products with therapeutic potential. Gen. Pharmacol. 27: 1996, 713-722.

Hufford C. D., Jia Y., Croom E.M., Jr., Muhammed I., Okunade A.L., Clark A.M.,and Rogers R.D. Antimicrobial compounds from Petalostemum purpureum. J. Nat. Prod. 56: 1993, 1878-1889.

Hunter M.D., and Hull L.A. Variation in concentrations of phloridzin and phloretin in apple folige. Phytochemistry 34: 1993, 1251-1254.

Jones S.B., Jr., and Luchsinger A.E. Plant systematics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N. Y., 1986.

Kazmi M. H., Malik A., Hameed S., Akhtar N., and Noor Ali S. An anthraquinone derivative from Cassia italica. Phytochemistry 36: 1994, 761-763.

Keating G.J., and O’Kennedy R. The chemistry and occurrence of coumarins. In O’Kennedy R. and Thornes R.D. (ed.), Coumarins: biology, applications and mode of action. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1997, p. 348.

Kubo I., Muroi H., and Himejima M. Antibacterial activity of totarol and its potentiation. J. Nat. Prod. 55: 1992, 1436-1440.

Kubo, I., Muroi H., and Himejima M. Combination effects of anti-fungal nagilactones against Candida albicans and two other fungi with phenylpropanoids. J. Nat. Prod.56: 1993, 220-226.

Kuhnau J. The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 24: 1976, 117-191.

Mason T.L., and Wasserman B.P. Inactivation of red beet betaglucan synthase by native and oxidized phenolic compounds. Phytochemistry 26: 1987, 2197-2202.

McDevitt J.T., Schneider D.M. Katiyar S.K., and Edlind T.D. Berberine: a candidate for the treatment of diarrhea in AIDS patients. In Program and Abstracts of the 36th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C., 1996, abstr.175.

McMohan J.B., Currens M.J., Gulakowski R.J., Buckheit R.W.J, Lackman-Smith C., Hallock Y.F., and Boyd M.R. Michellamine B, a novel plant alkaloid, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-induced cell killing by at least two distinct mechanisms. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 1995, 484-488.

Mendoza L., Wilkens M., and Urzua A. Antimicrobial study of the resinous exudates and of diterpenoids and flavonoids isolated from some Chilean Pseudognaphalium (Asteraceae). J. Ethnopharmacol. 58: 1997, 85-88.

Namba T., Morita O., Huang S.L., Goshima K., Hattori M., and Kakiuchi N. Studies on cardio-active crude drugs. I. Effect of coumarins on cultured myocardial cells. Planta Med. 54: 1988, 277-282.

O,Kennedy R., and Thornes R.D. (ed.). Coumarins: biology, applications and mode of action. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y., 1997.

Omulokoli E., Khan B., and Chhabra S.C. Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 56: 1997, 133-137.

Pengsuparp T., Cai L., Constant H., Fong H.H., Lin L.Z., Kinghorn A.D., J Pezzuto J.M., Cordell G.A., Ingolfsdottir K., and Wagner H. Mechanistic evaluation of new plant-derived compounds that inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. J. Nat. Prod. 58: 1995, 1024-1031.

Pengsuparp T., Cai L., Fong H.H.S., Kinghorn A.D., Pezzuto J.M., Wani M.C., and Wall M.E. Pentacyclic triterpenes derived from Maprounea africana are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. J. Nat. Prod. 57: 1994, 415-418.

Perrett S., Whitfield P.J., Sanderson L., and Bartlett A. The plant molluscicide Millettia thonningii (Leguminosae) as a topical antischistosomal agent. J. Ethnopharmacol. 47: 1995, 49-54.

Piller N.B. A comparison of the effectiveness of some anti-inflammatory drugs on thermal oedema. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 56: 1975, 554-559.

Rana B. K., Singh U.P., and Taneja V. Antifungal activity and kinetics of inhibition by essential oil isolated from leaves of Aegle marmelos. J. Ethnopharmacol. 57: 1997, 29-34.

Rao K.V., Sreeramulu K, Gunasekar D., and Ramesh D. Two new sesquiterpene lactones from Ceiba pentandra. J. Nat. Prod. 56: 1993, 2041-2045.

Sakanaka S., Kim M., Taniguchi M., and Yamamoto T. Antibacterial substances in Japanese green tea extract against Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic bacterium. Agric. Bio. Chem. 53: 1989, 2307-2311.

Sakanaka S., Shimura N., Aizawa M., Kim M., and Yamamoto T. Preventive effect of green tea polyphenols against dental caries in conventional rats. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 56: 1992, 592-594.

Scalbert A. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry 30: 1991, 3875-3883.

Schmidt H. Phenol oxidase (E.I.14.18.1), a marker enzyme for defense cells. Progress in histochemisty and cytochemistry, Gustav Fischer, New York, N.Y., vol.17, 1988.

Scortichini M., and Pia Rossi M. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of terpenes and terpenoids towards Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. J. Appl.Bacteriol. 71: 1991, 109-112.

Serafini M., Ghiselli A., and Ferro-Luzzi A. Red wine, tea and anti -oxidants. Lancet 344:626, 1994.

Sethi M.L. Inhibition of reverse transcriptase activity by benzo-phenanthridine alkaloids. J. Nat. Prod. 42: 1979, 187-196.

Sun H.D., Qiu S.X., Lin L.Z., Wang Z.Y., Lin Z.W., Pengsuparp T., Pezzuto J.M., Fong H.H., Cordell G.A., and Farnsworth N.R. Nigranoic acid, a triterpenoid from Schisandra sphaerandra that inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. J. Nat. Prod. 59: 1996, 525-527.

Suresh B., Sriram S., Dhanaraj S.A., Elango K., and Chinnaswamy K. Anticandidal activity of Santolina chamaecyparissus volatile oil. J. Ethnopharmacol. 55: 1997, 151-159.

Tassou C.C., Drosinos E.H., and Nychas G.J.E. Effects of essential oil from mint (Mentha piperita) on Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in model food systems at 4 degrees and 10 degrees. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 78: 1995, 593-600.

Taylor R S.L., Edel F., Manandhar N.P., and Towers G.H.N. Antimicrobial activities of Southern Nepalese medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 50: 1996, 97-102.

Thastrup O., Knudsen J.B., Lemmich J., and Winther K. Inhibitions of human platelet aggregation by dihydropyrano-and dihydrofurano-coumarins, a new class of cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Biochem. Pharmacol. 34: 1985, 2137-2140.

Thomson W.A.R. (ed.). Medicines from the Earth. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Maidenhead, United Kingdom, 1978.

Toda M., Okubo S., Ohnishi R., and Shimamura T. Antibacterial and bactericidal activities of Japanese green tea. Jpn. J. Bacteriol. 45: 1989, 561-566.

Tsuchiya H., Sato M., Iinuma M., Yokoyama J., Ohyama M., Tanaka T., Takase I., and Namikawa I. Inhibition of the growth of cariogenic bacteria in vitro by plant flavanones. Experientia 50: 1994, 846-849.

Urs, N.V.R.R., and Dunleavy J.M. Enhancement of the bactericidal activity of a peroxidase system by phenolic compounds (Xanthomonas phaseoli var. Sojensis, soybeans). Phytopathology 65: 1975, 686-690.

Vamos-Vigyazo, L. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in fruits and vegetables. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 15: 1981, 49-127.

Vijaya K., Ananthan S., and Nalini R. Antibacterial effect of theaflavin, polyphenon 60 (Camellia sinensis) and Euphorbia hirta on Shigella spp.—a cell culture study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 49: 1995, 115-118.

Virus R.M., and Gebhart G.F. Pharmacologic actions of capsaicin: apparent involvement of substance P and serotonin. Life Sci. 25: 1979, 1273-1284.

Vishwakarma R.A. Stereoselective synthesis of alpha arteether from artemisinin. J. Nat. Prod. 53: 1990, 216-217.

Watanbe H., Miyaji C., Makino M., and Abo T. Therapeutic effects of glycyrrhizin in mice infected with LP-BM5 murine retrovirus and mechanisms involved in the prevention of disease progression. Biotherapy 9: 1996, 209-220.

Wild R. (ed.). The complete book of natural and medicinal cures. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pa., 1994.

Xu H.X., Zeng F.Q., Wan M., and Sim K.Y. Anti-HIV triterpene acids from Geum japonicum. J. Nat. Prod. 59: 1996, 643-645.

Fernandes de Caleya R., Gonzalez-Pascual B., Garcia-Olmedo F., and Carbonero P. Appl. Microbiol. 23: 1972, 998-1000.

Stary F. The natural guide to medicinal herbs and plants, Barnes&Nobel Inc., 1996.

Kumar R., Sharma R.J., Bairwa K., Roy R.K., Kumar A. Pharmacological review on natural antidiarrhoel agents. Der Pharma Chemica, 2 (2) 2010, 66-93.

Sutar N., Garai R., Sharma U.S., Sharma U.K. Anthelmintic activity of Platycladus orientalis leaves extract. International Journal of Parasitology Research, 2 (2) 2010, 1-3.

Mute V.M. Anthelmintic effect of Tamarind indica Linn. leaves juice extract on Pheretima posthuma. International Journal of Pharma Research and Development, 7: 2009, 1-6.

Sharma U.S., Sharma U.K., Singh A., Sutar N., Singh P.J. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Murraya koenigii Linn. Leaves extracts. International Journal of Pharma and Bio sciences, 1 (3) 2010, 1-4.

Mali R.G., Mahajan S.G., Mehta A.A. In vitro anthelmintic activity of stem bark of Mimusops elengi Linn. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 3 (10) 2007, 73-76.

Patel J., Kumar G.S., Qureshi M.S., Jena P.K. Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Eupatorium odoratum. International Journal of Phytomedicine, 2: 2010, 127-132.

Roy H. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and anthelmintic activity of Acanthospermum hispidum DC. Journl of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, 2 (5) 2010, 217-221.

Cruz A.S.P. Anthelmintic effect of Solanum lycocarpum in mice infected with Aspiculuris tetraptera. The Journal of American science, 4 (3) 2008, 75-79.

Wang G.S., Han J., Zhao L.w., Jiang D.X., Liu Y.T., Liu X.L. Anthelmintic activity of steroidal saponins from Paris polyphylla. Phytomedicine, 17: 2010, 1102-1105.

Vidyadhar S., Saidulu M., Gopal T.K., Chamundeeswari D., Rao U., Banji D. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the whole plant of Enicostemma littorale by using various extracts. International Journal of appplied biology and pharmaceutical technology, 1 (3) 2010, 1119-1125.

Shaibani T.R.M.A., Phulan M.S., Shiekh M. Anthelmintic activity of Funaria parviflora (Fumariaceae) against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 11: 2009, 431-436.

Bachaya H.A., Iqbal I., Khan M.N., Jabbar J., Gilani A.H., Din I.U. In vitro and In vivo anthelmintic activity of Terminalia arjuna bark. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 11: 2009, 273-278.

Maniyar Y., Bhixavatimath P., Agashikar N.V. Antidiarrhoel activity of flowers of Ixora coccinea Linn. In rats. J Ayurveda Integr Medd.,1: 2010, 287-291.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2016.03.0016

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Bioassays

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Bioassays is a member of the Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), CROSSREF and CROSSMARK (USA). Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be assigned to all its published content.