Cover Image

GC-MS Analysis, Antibacterial and Antifungal activity of essential oil of Plectranthus rugosus from Kashmir, India.

Riehana Gani, Z. A. Bhat*, Mudasir Ahmad, M. Iqbal. Zargar


This work was carried out to evaluate chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activity of Plectranthus rugosus essential oil. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation which was analysed through GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was evaluated by Agar well diffusion method and Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by Agar dilution method. Caryophyllene, Germacrene D, alpha-pinene and beta-cymene were the major constituents present in the oil. The oil showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity.


Plectranthus rugosus; GC-MS; Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity.

Full Text:



Joseph Dalton Hooker. "Flora of British India”. 4 (2004): 620.

IsobeT; Kainikawa and Nippon Kagaku Kaishi. “Comparative study of volatile oil compositions of two Plectranthus species from northern India”. 11 (1972): 2143-8.

Khan S and Khatoon. “Ethnobotanical studies on useful trees and shrubs of Haramosh and Bugrote valleys, in Gilgit northern areas of Pakistan”. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39 (2007): 699-710.

Ajmal SM; Mohammad S, Zahid K and Bakht Z. “Ethnomedicinal and phytoeconomic elaboration of Lilownai valley, district Shangla Pakistan”. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 3 (2012): 164–169.

Sher Z; Khan Z and Hussain F. “Ethnobotanical studies of some plants of Chagharzai valley, district Buner, Pakistan”. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43 (2011): 1445–1452.

Rauf A; Khan A, Rasool S, Shah Z and Saleem M. “In-vitro antifungal activity of three selected Pakistani medicinal plants”. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 1 (2012): 41–43.

Sabeen M and Ahmad S. “Exploring the folk medicinal flora of Abbotabad city, Pakistan”. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13 (2009): 810–833.

Akhtar N; Rashid A, Murad W and Bergmeier E. “Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan”. Journal of Ethnobioogy and Ethnomedicine 9 (2013): 25–38.

Khan A; Choudhary MI, Tsuda Y, Pervez M, Rahman AU, Shaheen F, Parween Z, Tareen RB and Zaidi MA. “A new diepoxy-ent-kauranoid, rugosinin from Isodon rugosus”. Planta Medica Journal 69 (2003): 94–96.

Sun HD and Han QB. “Diterpenoids from Isodon species and their biological activities”. Natural Product Reports 23 (2006): 673–698.

Padalia RC and Verma RS. “Comparative study of volatile oil compositions of two Plectranthus species from northern India”. Natural Product Research 25 (2011): 1727–1732.

Rauf A; Khan A, Uddin N and Atif M. “Antibacterial and phytotoxic profile of selected Pakistani medicinal plants”. World Applied Sciences Journal 20 (2012): 540–544.

Rauf A; Uddin G, Ali M and Muhammad N. “Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Pakistani medicinal plants”. Planta Medica Journal 2 (2013): 1–6.

Irith Weigand; Kai Hilpert & Robert E W Hancock. “Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances”. 3 (2008): 163-75.

Seenivasan Prabuseenivasan, Manickkam Jayakumar and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu. “In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils”. 3 (2007): 143-47.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Bioassays

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Bioassays is a member of the Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), CROSSREF and CROSSMARK (USA). Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be assigned to all its published content.