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Chemical composition of the leaf essential oil of Antidesma venosum E. Mey. ex. Tul. and comparative phytochemical and pharmacognostic analysis of its leaf, stem bark and root

Egharevba H. O.*, Dalhatu N. A., Ibrahim J. A.


The leaf of the ethnomedicinally important plant, Antidesma venosum, was hydro-distilled to get the essential oil using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The oil was analyzed on Shimadzu QP2010 SE GC-MS to establish the chemical composition. The leaf, stem and bark of root of the plant were extracted and subjected to phytochemical and pharmacognostic analysis to establish their profiles and similarities, using standard methods. The results of the essential oils analysis revealed that the major components included (R)-(+)-Citronellal (28.97%), citronellyl acetate (11.98%), caryophyllene (7.14%), tetradecanal (6.97%), tetracosane (5.96%), caryophyllene oxide (4.65%) and phytol (4.11%). The results of phytochemical screening showed that the stem bark contain saponin, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin and flavonoid while reducing sugar and anthraquinones were absent. The root showed the presence of flavonoids, steroid and saponins, while alkaloids, reducing sugar carbohydrate and anthraquinones were absent. Saponins, carbohydrate, alkaloids, reducing sugars tannins and flavonoid were found in the leaf, while steroid and anthraquinones were absent. The pharmacognostics profile of the leaf revealed that moisture content was 14%, total ash value (8.5%), total solid (86%), water extractive value (4.97%) and alcohol extractive value (19.6%). For the stem bark, the moisture content was 12.1%, ash value (6.6%), total solid (87.9%), water extractive value (4.34%) and alcohol extractive value (8.33%) and for the root moisture content was 13.1%, ash value (8.6%), total solid (86.9%), water extractive value (16%) and alcohol extractive value (45.1%). The phyto-anatomical character (epidermal peeling) carried out on the leaf revealed the presence of parasitic stomata, unicellular trichomes and polygonal cell shape at the lower surface and while stomata and trichomes were absent on the upper surface. The findings of this study establish the bases for its ethnopharmacological applications, and provide information that could be used to determine sample authenticity.


Antidesma venosum; essential oil; Citronellal; Phytochemistry; pharmacognosy

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