Cover Image

Assessment of anthropogenic activities and exotic flora of Lolab valley, Kashmir, India

Fayaz Bhat, D.M. Mahajan, Asifa Bhat


The present study is an attempt to analyze and assess the anthropogenic pressure and status of exotic species in the forests of Lolab Valley, Kashmir (India). Because of continuous and heavy grazing, and illegal encroachments, the pastures and forest-areas are deteriorated to critical levels. The pressure is also developing on the most favorite and preferred fuel wood tree species that include Cedrus deodara, Pinus excelsa, and Abies pindrow. The Kashmir Himalaya, known for its indigenous and endemic flora, also provides home to a large number of exotic plants, which exhibit a wide taxonomical and distributional stretch. The inventorization and documentation of its exotics have received a little or negligible attention. The present study has revealed that the exotic flora of Lolab valley is represented by a total of 30 species belonging to 22 families. The family Salicaceae (39%) proved to be the largest family fallowed by Rosaceae (31%), Rununculaceae (15%) and Moraceae (15%). Contribution of different geographical regions in terms of nativity shows that highest number of alien species have come from the continental Europe (42%) followed by Asia (31%) and North America (13%). In contrast, European flora contributed maximum percentage of species (42%) to the alien flora of Lolab valley.


Anthropogenic Pressure; Exotic Flora; Kashmir Himalaya; Lolab Valley; Temperate Forests.

Full Text:



Ahmed, M., M. Ashfaq, M. Amjad and M. Saeed. “Vegetation structure and dynamics of Pinus gerardiana forests in Baluchistan, Pakistan.” Journal of Vegetation Science 2, (1991): 119-124. Print.

Ahmed, M., S.S. Shahid and A.H. Buzdar. “Population structure and dynamics of Juniperus excelsa in Baluchistan, Pakistan.” Journal of Vegetation Science 1, (1990): 271-276. Print.

Ahmed, M., T. Hussain, A.H. Sheikh and M.F. Siddiqui. “Phytosociology and structure of Himalayan forests from different climatic zones of Pakistan.” Pak. J. Botany 38.2 (2006): 361-383. Print.

Mir, Anjum Afshan, D.M. Mahajan and P.G. Saptarshi “Composition and distribution of macrophytes in Hokersar - A wetland of international importance in Kashmir Himalaya” The Int. J. of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses, 1.4 (2009): 23-35.

Anonymous. “Plant diversity and invasives in Blue Oak Savannas of the Southern Sierra Nevada”. United States Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR (2002): 184. Print.

Asner, G.P., E.N. Broadbent, P.J.C. Oliveira, M. Keller, D.E. Knapp and J.N.M. Silva. “Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 103 (2006): 12947- 12950. Online.

Aumeeruddy Thomas, Y., Lama, Y.C. and Ghimire, S. “Medicinal plants within the context of pastoral life in the village of Pungmo, Dolpo, Nepal”. In: Strategic innovations for improving pastoral livelihoods in the Hindu-kush Himalayan Highlands, (eds). C. Richard & K. Hoffmann. Kathmandu, Nepal: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, (2004): 108–128. online

Bhat Fayaz, D.M. Mahajan, M.R.G. Sayyed and Asifa Bhat. “Ethno-medicinal survey of north Kashmir Himalaya – a case study of Lolab valley (J&K), India”. Eco. Env. & Cons. 20.1 (2014): 59-71. Print.

Bhatt, B.P., A.K. Negi and N.P. Todaria. Fuel wood consumption pattern at different altitudes in Garhwal Himalaya. Energy, 19.4 (1994): 465-468.

Broadhead, J., J. Bahdon and A. Whiteman. “Wood fuel consumption modeling and results”. Annex 2 In: Past trends and future prospects for the utilization of wood for Energy, (2001): Working Paper No: GFPOS.

Chandra Sekar K. “Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region: Diversity and Implication”. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3 (2012): 177-184. Online

Chaudhry Pradeep, Kenjum Bagra and Bilas Singh. “Urban Greenery Status of Some Indian Cities: A Short Communication”. International J. of Environmental Science and Development, 2.2, (2011): 1-4. Print.

Drake J.A, Mooney H.A, di Castri F, Groves R.H, Kruger F.J, Rejmanek M, Williamson M. “Biological invasions: a global perspective.” John Wiley and Sons, New York. (eds). (1989).

Fimbel, R.A., E. Bennett and C. Kremen. “Programs to assess timber harvesting effects on tropical forest wildlife and their natural habitat”. In: The cutting edge: conserving wildlife in logged tropical forests. (Eds.): R.A. Fimbel, A. Grajal, J.G. Robinson. New York: Columbia University Press. (2001): 405-22.

Gattoo, Aarif Ali. “An Overview of Exotic Forestry in India”. Life sciences Leaflets 8 (2012): 69-80.

Harini Nagendra & Divya Gopal. “Tree diversity, distribution, history and change in urban parks: studies in Bangalore, India.” Urban Ecosyst. (2010): (DOI: 10.1007/s11252-010-0148-1).

Hua Jiang, Qiang Fan, Jin-Tian Li, Shi Shi, Shao-Peng Li, Wen-Bo Liao, and Wen-Sheng Shu. “Naturalization of alien plants in China”. Biodivers. Conserv. 20 (2011): 1545–1556. Online.

Keith, M., Khuroo A. A., Lloyd, L., Parks, C., Pauchard, A., Reshi, Z. A., Rushworth, I., Kueffer, C. “Plant invasions in mountains: global lessons for better management”. Mountain Research and Development, 31.4(2011): 380-387.

Khuroo, A.A., Reshi, Z. A., Malik, A. H., Weber, E. Rashid, I., Dar, G. H. “Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations”. Biological Invasions 14 (2012): 99-113.

Khuroo, A.A., Weber, E., Malik, A.H., Reshi, Z.A., Dar, G.H. “Altitudinal distribution patterns of the native and alien woody flora in Kashmir Himalaya, India”. Environmental Research 111 (2011): 967-977.

Mack R.N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W.M., Evans H., Clout M., Bazzaz F.A., “Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control”. Ecological Applications 10 (2000): 710-689.

Mahajan D.M. and Vishwas S. Kale. “Spatial characteristics of vegetation cover based on remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS).” Tropical Ecology 47.1 (2006): 71-79. Print.

Meijard E., D. Sheil, R. Nasi, D. Augeri, B. Rosenbaum, D. Iskandar, T. Setyawati, M. Lammertink, I. Rachmatika, A. Wong, T. Soehartono and T.O. Brien. “Life after logging: reconciling wildlife conservation and production forestry in Indonesian Borneo”. CIFOR and UNESCO, Bogor, Indonesia. (2005). Print.

Mir, I.U. “Grazing policy and fodder development”. Paper presented at Workshop on Grazing Policy and Fodder Dev., held at Jammu: 19-20 March (1992).

Montero-Castan˜o Ana and Montserrat Vila. “Impact of landscape alteration and invasions on pollinators: a meta-analysis.”. Journal of Ecology, 100 (2012): 884–893.

Nayar, M.P. and A.R.K. Sastri. “Red Data Book of Indian Plants”, Vol. III. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India. (1990). Print.

Nebel, Bernard J. and Richard T. Wright. “Environmental Science: the Way the World Works” 6th ed. Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. (1998). Print.

Ogunkunle and Oladele. “Ethno-botanical study of fuel wood and timber wood consumption and replenishment in Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 91 (2004): 223-236.

Osei, W.Y. “Wood fuel and deforestation—answers for a sustainable environment”. Journal of Environmental Management. 37 (1993): 51-62.

Pergl Jan, Petr Pysˇek, Irena Perglova´ and Vojteˇch Jarosˇ. “Low persistence of a monocarpic invasive plant in historical sites biases our perception of its actual distribution”. Journal of Biogeography. 39 (2012): 1293–1302.

Phillmore P.R. “Flocks, Forest and Land in Himachal Pradesh”. In: Conservation of the Indian Heritage, (eds.) Allchin B, Allchin FR, Thapar BK, Cosmo Publ., New Delhi, (1989): 55-66.

Phillmore, P.R. “Migratory graziers and their flocks”. In: The wildlife of Himachal Pradesh, western Himalayas. School of Forest Resource, Orono, Maine, USA, (1981): 98-110.

Polunin, O. and A. Stainton,. “Flowers of the Himalaya”, Oxford University Press, Delhi, (1984): 1-64

Punalekar Suvarna, D.M. Mahajan and D.K. Kulkarni “Impact of exotic tree species on the native vegetation of Vetal hill, Pune” Indian Journal of Forestry, 33.4 (2010): 549-554.

Putz, F.E., G.M. Blate, K.H. Redford, R. Fimbel and J. Robinson. “Tropical forest management and conservation of biodiversity: an overview”. Conserv. Biol., 15 (2001): 7-20.

Pysek P., Richardson D.M., Rejmanek M., Webster G.L., Williamson M. and Kirschner J. “Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists”. Taxon. 53 (2004): 131-143.

Rajanna L.N. and Y.N. Seetharam. “A study of alien flora of Bidar District, Karnataka, India”. Research & Reviews: Journal of Botany. 1.2(2012): 1-15.

Ram, Jeet and S.P. Singh. “Ecology and conservation of alpine meadows in Central Himalaya, India”. In: Y.P.S. Pangtey and R.S. Rawal (Eds.) High Altitudes of the Himalaya. Gyanodya Prakashan Nainital (1994). Print.

Rawat, G.S. and Uniyal, V.K. “Pastoralism and plant conservation: The Valley of Flowers dilemma”. Environmental Conservation, 20.2(1993): 164-167.

Shaheen Hamayun, Rizwana Aleem Qureshi, Zahid Ullah and Tahira Ahmad. “Anthropogenic pressure on the Western Himalayan moist temperate forests of Bagh, Azad Jammu & Kashmir”. Pak. J. Bot. 43.1(2011): 695-703.

Simberloff D. “Confronting introduced species: a form of xenophobia” Biol. Invasions 5 (2003): 179-192.

Singh Arvind. “Exotic flora of the Banaras Hindu University Main Campus, India”. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment. 3.10(2011):.337-343.

Singh S.K. and G.S. Rawat. “Floral diversity and vegetation structure in great Himalayan National Park, Western Himalaya”. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra-Dun. (1999). Print.

Singh Vijai Shanker, Deep Narayan Pandey & Pradeep Chaudhry. “Urban Forests and Open Green Spaces: Lessons for Jaipur, Rajasthan, India”. RSPCB Occasional Paper No. 1 (2010): 23. Online.

Stein B.A, Flack S.R “America’s least wanted: alien species invasions of U.S. ecosystems”. Natur. Conserv. (1996): 14-19.

Strayer, David L. “Alien species in fresh waters: ecological effects, interactions with other stressors, and prospects for the future”. Freshwater Biology, 55.Suppl. 1 (2010): 152–174.

Tikader, B.K. “Threatened animals of India”. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta 16: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (1983). Print.

Tucker, R.P. “The evolution of transhumance grazing in the Punjab Himalaya”. Mountain Res., and Dev., 6 (1986): 17-28.

Vitousek P.M, Walker L.R. “Biological invasions as Global environmental Change”. Am. Sci. 84 (1996): 468-478.

Wahab, M., M. Ahmed and N. Khan. “Phytosociology and dynamics of some pine forests of Afghanistan”. Pak. J. Bot. 40.3 (2008): 1071-1079.

Williamson M. “Biological Invasion risks and the public Good: An Economic perspective”. Ecology 22 (1999): 5-12.

Zarin, D.J., M. Schmink, J.R. Alavalapati and F.E. Putz. “Working forests in the neotropics: conservation through sustainable management” New York: Columbia University Press(2004). Print.

Zenni, Rafael Dudeque and Sílvia Renate Ziller. “An overview of invasive plants in Brazil”. Revista Brasil. Bot. 34.3 (2011): 431-446.

Zerbe, S., Choi, Il-Ki, Kowarick, I. “Characteristics and habitats of non-native plant species in the city of Chonju, Southern Korea”. Ecological Research. 19.1, (2004): 91-98.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Bioassays

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Bioassays is a member of the Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), CROSSREF and CROSSMARK (USA). Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be assigned to all its published content.