Cover Image

Oxidative chemical polymerization kinetics of o-chloroaniline and characterization of the obtained polymer in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution using k2cr2o7 as oxidizing agent

S. M. Sayyah*, S. M. Mohamed


The oxidative chemical polymerization of o-chloroaniline (OClA) was studied in hydrochloric acid solution using potassium dichromate as oxidant at 5 ± 0.20C. The effects of potassium dichromate, hydrochloric acid and monomer concentrations on the polymerization reaction were investigated. The order of reaction with respect to potassium dichromate, hydrochloric acid and monomer concentrations were found to be 1.035, 1.116 and 0.966 respectively. Also, the effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was studied and the apparent activation energy of the polymerization reaction was found to be 18.49 kJ/mol. The obtained polymer was characterized using elemental analysis, XPS, IR and UV-visible. The surface morphology of the obtained polymer was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TGA analysis was used to confirm the proposed structure and number of water molecules in each polymeric chain unit.


Oxidative Chemical Polymerization; O-Chloroaniline; Characterization; Kinetics

Full Text:



Sapurin I and Stejskal. J. The mechanism of the oxidative polymerization of aniline and the formation of supramolecular polyaniline structures (Review). Polym. Int., 2008.57: 1295-1325.

SM Sayyah, E Azzam, A Khalil and SM Mohamed. Improvement of the Surface Activity and the Solubility for Some Synthesized Polyaniline Surfactants. Egy .J. Chem, 2012. 6: 561-581.

P Chowdhury and B Saha. Potassium dichromate initiated polymerization of aniline. Indian. J. Chem. Technol., 2005. 12:671-688.

R Hirase, T Shikata and M Shirai, Selective formation of polyaniline on wool by chemical polymerization, using potassium iodate. Synth. Metals., 2004. 146: 73-77.

K Gopalakrishnan, M Elango and M Thamilsevan. Optical studies on nano-structured conducting Polyaniline prepared by chemical oxidation method. Arch. Phys. Res., 2012. 3: 315-319.

K Molapo, P Ndangili, R Ajayi, G Mbambisa, S Mailu. Electronics of conjugated polymers (I): polyaniline. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 2012.7: 11859–11875

N Njomo, M Masikini, P Baker and E Iwuoha. Electronics of Conjugated Polymers (I): Polyaniline. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2012. 7: 11859-11875.

Y Cao, P Smith and A Heeger. Counter-ion induced processibility of conducting polyaniline and of conducting polyblends of polyaniline in bulk polymers. Synth. Met, 1992. 48: 91-97.

Heeger, Synth Met. Polyaniline with surfactant counterions: Conducting polymer materials which are processible in the conducting form". Synth. Met. 1993. 55: 3471-3482.

S Jaroslav and K Pavel. Accelerating effect of some cation radicals on the polymerization of aniline. Polymer., 1995. 36(21): 4135-4140.

Y Kang, M Lee and S Rhee. Electrochemical properties of polyaniline doped with poly(styrenesulfonic acid. Synth. Met. 1992. 52: 319-328.

Pron, J Laska, J Osterholm and P Smith. Processable conducting polymers obtained via protonation of polyaniline with phosphoric acid esters. Polymer, 1998. 34: 4235-4240.

SM Sayyah, H Abd-El Salam and E Azzam. Surface activity of monomeric and polymeric (3-alkyloxy aniline) surfactants. Int. J. Polym. Mater., 2005. 54: 541-554.

SM Sayyah, A Bahgat and H Abd El-Salam, Kinetic studies of the aqueous oxidative polymerization of 3-hydroxyaniline and characterization of the polymer obtained. Int. J. Polym. Mater., 2002. 51: 291-314.

SM Sayyah, A Abd El-Khalek, A Bahgat and H Abd El Salam. kinetic study of the chemical polymerization of substituted aniline in aqueous solution and characterization of the polymer obtained,part1:3-chloroaniline. Int. J. Polym. Mater. 2001. 50: 197-208.

SM Sayyah and H Abd El Salama. Aqueoued oxidative chemical polymerization of N-methylaniline in acid medium and charactrization of the obtained polymer Int. J. Polym. Mater., 2003. 52: 1087-1111.

GD Nestorovi, KB Jeremi and SM Jovanovi. J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 2006. 71 (8–9): 895.

SM Sayyah, AB Khaliel, AA Abood and SM Mohamed. Chemical polymerization kinetics of poly-o-phenylenediamine and characterization of the obtained polymer in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution using K2Cr2O7 as oxidizing agent. Inter. J. Polym. Sci., 2014. ID 520910.,

SM Sayyah, AA Aboud, AB Khaliel and SM Mohamed. Oxidative Chemical Polymerization of Ortho-Tolidine in Acid Medium Using K2Cr2O7 as Oxidizing Agent and Characterization of the Obtained Polymer. International Journal of Advanced Research 2014. 2( 6): 586-607.

SM Sayyah, AA Aboud and SM Mohamed. Kinetic Studies, Mechanism, Characterization and Electrical Properties of Doped Poly-o-Methoxyaniline Synthesized by Oxidative Chemical Polymerization. International Journal of Chemistry. 2012. 35 (2): 1613-1633.

SM Sayyah and SM Mohamed. Preparation kinetics and characterization of poly o- hydroxyaniline in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution using K2Cr2O7 as oxidizing agent. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, 8(2): 28-43.

SM Sayyah and H Abd El Salam. Oxidative chemical polymerization of some 3-alkyloxyaniline surfactants and characterization the obtained polymer .Int. J. Polym. Mater. (2006). 55: 1075-1093.

Qaiser, M Hyland and D Patterson. Effect of various polymerization techniques on PANI deposition at the surface of cellulose ester micro porous membranes: XPS and electrical conductivity study Synth. Met. 2012. 162, : 958-967.

JLi, X Qian, L Wang and A Xi. XPS characterization and percolation behavior of polyaniline -coated conductive paper Bio Resources. 2010. 5(2): 712.

K Tan, B Tan. The chemical nature of nitrogen in polypyrrole and polyaniline: a comparative study by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy J. Chem. Phys. 1991.94(8) : 5382.

P Stefanov, D Stoychev, M Stoycheva and T Marinova Mater. XPS and SEM studies of chromium oxide films chemically formed on stain steel 316L. Chem. Phys. 2000. 65( 2): 212.

VB Gupta and VK Kothari. Polyaniline-lignosulfonate/epoxy coating for corrosion protection of AA2024-T3.Manufactured Fiber Technology Book. Chapman & Hall., 1997. 225.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Bioassays

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Bioassays is a member of the Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), CROSSREF and CROSSMARK (USA). Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be assigned to all its published content.