Cover Image

A study on epidemiological and clinical profile of acute paraqat poisoning and its consequences in tertiary care centre

Harshavardhan L., Rajanna B.*, Shashikanth Y. S.


Paraquat (1, 1' – dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridinium) was introduced in 1962.  It is a widely used contact herbicide with a good safety record when used properly [1].  It came into disrepute because of accidental or intentional ingestion leading to a high mortality. Paraquat toxicity can produce both local and systemic effects. The major acute effects are the ulceration of skin, lips, tongue, pharynx and esophagus. The acute systemic effects are usually pulmonary edema, cardiac, renal or hepatic failure and convulsions [2]. The main objective of the study is to study the epidemiological and clinical profile of acute paraquat (PQ) poisoning and to determine the outcome in acute paraquat poisoning patients in tertiary care centre in south India. The methodology adopted for this retrospective study describing the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcomes of paraquat poisoning cases admitted to Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences, Hassan, Karnataka, India, from 1st march 2012 to 31st march 2013. Medical records of 77 patients were reviewed. A total of 77 cases of acute paraquat poisoning were included in the study, who were admitted in the hospital during our study period. Recovery is 46.75%, mortality is 27.27% and 22% went against medical advice. This study concludes that, paraquat is a widely used weedicide by the farmers in the rural areas in and around the Hassan, suicidal ingestion is more common than occupational exposure in contrast to developed countries.  Patient who has taken <20 ml and reported <6 hours shown better recovery in compared to their counter parts.


Paraquat poisoning; PQ; Mortality.

Full Text:



Conning DM, Fletcher K, Swann A. Paraquat and related bipyridyls. Br Med Bull 1969, 25: 245.

Vale JA, Meredith TJ, Buckley BM: Paraquat poisoning: Clinical features and immediate general management. Hum Toxicol 1987, 6: 41-47.

Pronczuk de Garbino J. Epidemiology of paraquat poisoning prevention, in: bismuth c Hal AH, eds. paraquat poisoning mechanisms treatment. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1995: 37–51.

Eddleston M, Wilks MF, Buckley NA. Prospects for treatment of paraquat-induced lung fibrosis with immunosuppressive drugs and the need for better prediction of outcome: a systematic review. QJM 2003; 96:809-24.

Conning DM, Fletcher K, Swann A. Paraquat and related bipyridyls. Br Med Bull 1969, 25: 245-249.4. Hampson ECGM, Effeney DJ, Pond SM: Efficacy of single or repeated hemo perfusion in a canine model of paraquat poisoning. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1990, 254:732-740.

Vale JA, Meredith TJ, Buckley BM: Paraquat poisoning: Clinical features and immediate general management. Hum Toxicol 1987, 6: 41-47.

Florkowski CM, Bradberry SM, Ching GW, Jones AF. Acute renal failure in a case of paraquat poisoning with relative absence of pulmonary toxicity. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1992, 68: 660-662.

JS Sandhu et al., Outcome of paraquat poisoning - a five year study Indian Journal of Nephrology 2003; 13: 64-68.

Wong KT, Ng TS. Alleged paraquat poisoning in Perak. The Medical Journal of Malaysia 1984; 39(1): 52.

Sazaroni MR, Awang R, Zyoud SH, Haslina H, Adilah MA, Asdariah M. Review on Paraquat Poisoning in Malaysia after Lifting of Ban (Abstract). Journal of Medical Toxicology 2012; 8(2): 209

Gawarammana IB, Buckley NA. Medical management of paraquat ingestion. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2011; 72(5): 745-75.

Bohler J, Riegel W, Keller E, Logemann E, Just H, Schollmeyer PJ: Continuous arterio venous hemo perfusion (CAVHP) for treatment of paraquat poisoning. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1992, 7: 875-878

Koo JR, Kim JC, Yoon JW, et al., Failure of continuous venovenous hemofiltration of preventing death in paraquat poisoning. Am J Kidney Dis 2002, 39(1):55-59.

Bismuth C, Garnier R, Dally S, et al: Prognosis and treatment of paraquat poisoning: A review of 28 cases. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1982, 19: 461-474.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 International Journal of Bioassays

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Bioassays is a member of the Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), CROSSREF and CROSSMARK (USA). Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be assigned to all its published content.