Cover Image

Interactive effects of kinetin and spermine on anatomical adaptations and productivity to seawater salinity in wheat

Heshmat Soliman Aldesuquy*, Bardees Mohmed Mickky


A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of grain presoaking in kinetin (0.1mM), spermine (0.3mM) or their interaction on wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Sakha 93 on some anatomical features in flag leaf as and pedicle of main shoot as well as grain yield at ear emergence (after 65 days from sowing) by measuring leaf thickness, ground tissue thickness, number of hairs, meta-xylem vessel area, xylem vessel area, phloem tissue area, vascular bundle tissues area, number of motor cells as well as number of opened and closed stomata on both upper and lower epidermis and some anatomical features of peduncle (peduncle diameter, tracheids area, meta-xylem vessel area, xylem area, phloem area, vascular area, number of vascular bundle as well as opened and closed stomata) of wheat plants. Wheat plants respond to seawater salinity with characteristic modifications in their anatomy to counter the ill effect of seawater stress. Therefore, Irrigation of wheat plants with seawater caused significant increase in leaf and ground tissue thickness in flag leaves as well as meta-xylem vessel area, xylem vessel area, vascular bundle area in flag leaf and peduncle of main shoot of wheat plants. However, irrigation of wheat plants with seawater decreased phloem area in flag leaves and peduncle of the main shoot of wheat plants. The application of kinetin, spermine or their interaction induced some modifications in the anatomical features of the flag leaf and peduncle of the main shoot which appeared to be an adaptive response to salinity stress caused by seawater. Furthermore, grain priming with kinetin, spermine or their interaction increased phloem thickness in both leaf and peduncle of main shoot and consequently induced rapid rate of translocation of photo-assimilates from flag leaf to developing grains in spikes and consequently increase productivity of wheat plants irrigated by seawater.


Anatomy; Kinetin; Wheat; Seawater; Spermine

Full Text:



Shao HB, Chu LY, Jaleel AC and Zhao CX, Water-deficit stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants. Comptes rendus Biol, 2008, 331, 215- 225.

Çavuşoğlu K, Kılıç S and Kabar K, Some morphological and anatomical observations during alleviation of salinity (NaCl) stress on seed germination and seedling growth of barley by polyamines. Acta Physiol Plant., 2007, 29, 551- 557.

Junghans U, Polle A, Düchting P, Weiler E, Kuhlman B, Gruber F, and Teichmann T, Adaptation to high salinity in poplar involves changes in xylem anatomy and auxin physiology. Plant, Cell and Environ., 2006, 29, 1519- 1531.

Aldesuquy HS, Effect of gibberellic acid, indol-3-acitic acid, abscisic acid and seawater on growth characteristics and chemical composition of wheat seedlings. Egyptian J. Physiol. Sci., 1998, 22, 451- 466.

Abernethy GA, Fountain DW and Mcmanus MT, Observations on the leaf anatomy of Festuca novae-zelandiae and biochemical responses to a water deficit. New Zealand J. Bot., 1998, 36, 113- 123.

Gielwanowska I, Szczuka E, and Bednara J, Anatomical features and ultrastructure of Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae) leaves from different growing habitats. Annal. Bot., 2005, 96, 1109- 1119.

Aldesuquy HS, and Baka ZAM, Interactive effects of NaCl salinity and growth substances on the anatomy of wheat flag leaf. Mans. Sci. Bull., 1991,18, 148 -166.

Aldesuquy HS, Abo-Hamed SA, Abbas MA, and Elhakem AH, Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress. J. Stress Physiol. & Biochem., 2012, 8, 69-86.

Evans LT, Dunston RL, Rawson HMR and Williams AF, The phloem of the wheat stem in relation to requirements for assimilates by the ear. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 1970, 23, 723- 752.

Hameed M, Ashraf M, and Naz N, Anatomical adaptations to salinity in cogon grass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel] from the Salt Range, Pakistan. Plant Soil, 10, 322, 229- 238.

Longstreth DJ, and Nobel PS, Salinity effects on leaf anatomy. Plant Physiol., 1979, 63: 700-703.

Bruns S, and Hecht-Buchholz C, Studies on the leaves of several potato cultivars after application of salt at various developmental stages. Potato Res., 1990, 33, 33- 41.

Romero-Aranda, R, Soria T, and Cuartero J, Tomato plant water uptake and plant water relationships under saline growth conditions. Plant Sci. 2001, 160, 265- 272.

Azooz MM, Shadded MA, and Abdel-Latef AA, The accumulation and compartmentation of proline in relation to salt tolerance of three Sorghum cultivars. Indian J. Plant Physiol., 2004, 9, 1- 8.

Amzallag GN, Lener HR and Polijakoff-Mayber A, Exogenous ABA as a modulator of the response of sorghum to high salinity. J Exp Bot., 1990, 541, 1529- 1534.

Bais HP, and Ravishankar GA, Role of polyamines in the ontogeny of plants and their biotechnological applications. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult., 2002, 69, 1- 34.

Munns R, James RA, and Läuchli A, Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. J. Exp. Bot., 2006, 57, 1025- 1043.

Ahmad AHH, Harb, EM, Higazy MA, and Morgan SH, Effect of silicon and boron foliar applications on wheat plants grown under saline soil conditions. Inter.J. Agric. Res., 2008, 3, 1- 26.

Sass, Botanical microtechnique. The Iowa State College Press, Amer. Iowa, 1951.

Gonzalez R, and Woods E, Color Image Processing. Digital Image Processing. 3rd ed., 1992,

Aldesuquy HS, Effect of Spermine and Spermidine on Wheat Plants Irrigated with Waste Water: Conductive Canals of Flag Leaf and Peduncle in Relation to Grain Yield. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, 2014, 10 (1), 145-166.

Longstreth DJ, Bolaños AJ, and Smith EJ, Salinity effects on photosynthesis and growth in Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. Plant Physiol., 1984, 75, 1044- 1047.

Roussos PA, Tsantili E, and Pontikis CA, Responses of jojoba explants to different salinity levels during the proliferation stage in vitro. Industrial Crops and Products, 2005, 23, 65- 72.

Parés J, Arizaleta M, Sanabria, ME, and García YG, Effect of salinity levels on the stomatal density, stomatal index and leaf thickness of Carica papaya L. Acta Botánica Venezuelica, 2008 31, 27- 34.

Wignarajah K, Jennings DH, and Handley JF, The effect of salinity on growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Annal. Bot., 1975, 39, 1029- 1038.

Aldesuquy HS, Abass MM, Abo- Hamed SA, and Elhakem AH, Effect of glycine betaine and salicylic acid on growth and productivity of droughted wheat cultivars: Image analysis for measuring the anatomical features in flag leaf and peduncle of the main shoot. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, 2013, 9, 35-63.

Nieman RH, Expansion of bean leaves and its suppression by salinity. Plant Physiol., 1965, 40, 56- 62.

Cutler JM, Rains DW, and Loomis RS, The importance of cell size in the water relations of plants. Physiol Plant., 1977, 40, 255- 260.

El-Shami IZM, The role of endogenous growth hormones during water stress and salinity stress. M. Sc. Thesis, Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt. 1987.

Hu Y, Fromm J, and Schmidhalter U, Effect of salinity on tissue architecture in expanding wheat leaves. Planta, 2005, 220: 838- 848.

Tyree MT, Davis SD, and Cochard H, Biophysical perspectives of xylem evolution: Is there a tradeoff of hydraulic efficiency for vulnerability to dysfunction? IAWA J., 1994, 15, 335-360.

Cramer GR, and Quarrie SA, Abscisic acid is correlated with the leaf growth inhibition of four genotypes of maize differing in their response to salinity. Functional Plant Biol., 2002, 29, 111- 115.

El-Sawy OEH, Protective effects of polyamines on wheat plants irrigated by seawater. Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. Sci., Mans. Univ., Egypt, 2009.

Udovenko GV, Gradchaninova OD, Gudkova GN, Semushina LA, and Morozova AG, Structural and anatomical changes in plant grown under salinity and their physiological importance. Fiziologiia I Biokhimiia Kulturnykh Rastenii, 1976, 8, 288- 292.

Aldesuquy HS, Mankarios TA, and Awad HA, Effect of some antitranspirants on growth, metabolism and productivity of saline-treated wheat plants. ΙΙΙ. Anatomical changes in flag leaf and peduncle. Mans. Sci. Bull., 1998, 25: 1- 22.

Sibaoka T, Rapid plant movements irrigated by action potentials. Botanical Magazine, 1991, 140, 73- 79.

Singh AK, and Dubey RS, Changes in chlorophyll a and b contents and activities of photosystems 1 and 2 in rice seedlings induced by NaCl. Photosynth., 1995, 31: 489- 499.

Sharma SK, Studies on growth, water relations and distribution of Na+, K+ and other ions in wheat under short-term exposure to salinity. India J. Plant Physiol., 1995, 38, 233- 235.

Mansour MMF, Changes in growth, osmotic potential and cell permeability of wheat cultivars under salt stress. Biol. Plant., 1994, 36: 429- 434.

Nesiem MRA, and Ghallab AM, Interactive effects of ABA and salinity on growth and yield of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum). Proceedings of Sixth Egyptian Botanica Conference, November 24- 26, 1999, Cairo University, Giza, pp 133- 154.

Shani U, and Dudley LM, Field studies of crop response to water and salt stress. Soil Sci. Soc. America, 2001, 65, 1522- 1528.

Ray S, and Choudhuri MA, Effect of growth regulators on grain filling and yield of rice (Oryza sativa). Annal. Bot., 1981, 47, 755- 758.

Aldesuquy HS, and Ibrahim AH, Water relations, abscisic acid and yield of wheat plants in relation to the interactive effect of seawater and growth bioregulators. J. Agron. and Crop Sci., 2001, 187: 97- 104.

Arbona V, Marco AJ, Ijlesias DJ, Lopez-Climent MF, Talon M, and Gómez-Coudenas A, Carbohydrate depletion in roots and leavers of salt-stressed potted Citrus clemtina L. Plant Growth Regul., 2005, 46, 153- 160.

Shah SH, Effects of salt stress on mustard as affected by gibberellic acid application. General and Appl. Plant Physiol., 2007, 33, 97- 106.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 International Journal of Bioassays

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Bioassays is a member of the Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), CROSSREF and CROSSMARK (USA). Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be assigned to all its published content.