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An in vivo assessment of anti-diarheal activity of solvent extracts of leaf and stem bark of Ghanaian parkia biglobosa against castor oil-induced diarrhea in albino rats

Oseni Lateef Adebayo*, Safianu Marzuk, Seidu Ibrahim Mumuni

Abstract


Parkia biglobosa is a wild plant belonging to family Fabaceae. The plant has widely been reported for its medicinal properties and used traditionally in the northern part of Ghana in the management of diarrhea. The present study evaluated the phytochemical profile, acute toxicity and anti-diarrheal effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf and stem bark extracts of P. biglobosa against castor oil-induced diarrhea in albino rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of reducing sugars, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthocyanosides and terpenes in both leaf and stem bark. Flavonoids and saponins were only found in the leaf extracts. Alkaloids and anthraquinones were only found in the stem bark. The LD50 of the extracts was found to be greater than 5000mg per kg body weight of the rats. The extracts induced a dose dependent anti-diarrheal effect at 200, 600 and 1000 mg per kg body weight by significantly (p<0.05) reducing the frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea. The anti-diarrheal activities of the various extracts were significant (p<0.05) compared with the control. Diarrheal droppings were completely eliminated at dose 1000mg per kg body weight after five hours. The antidiarrheal activity of the extracts at dose 1000mg per kg body weight was comparable to that of the standard drug loperamide at 2mg per kg body weight. Results from this study show that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. biglobosa leaf and stem bark possess anti-diarrheal effects on castor oil-induced diarrhea models and this scientifically validates its traditional use in the management diarrheal conditions.

Keywords


Parkia biglobosa; phyotchemicals; anti-diarrheal; castor oil-induced model; albino rats

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2014.10.007

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