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Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial screening of fresh Tetradenia riparia leaves against selected pathogenic microorganisms

Mutuku Chrispus Ngule*, Mueni Hellen Ndiku, Ramesh F., Makau Elijah Ngule


The use of plants as a source of medicine is as old as man himself. Plants have been used since time immemorial to treat against various diseases affecting human beings all over the world. Before the invention of synthetic drugs, traditional medicine dominated the world. The study was conducted to analyze the antibacterial activity phytoconstituents of Tetradenia riparia plant. The samples were extracted using water solvent. The phytoconstituents study was done using standard procedures. The bioassay was done using well diffusion method. From the study, Tetradenia riparia was found to contain tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, alkaloids and steroidal rings, but terpenoids, steroids and steroidal nucleus were found to be absent in the plant extract. The fresh leaves water extract of the plant Tetradenia riparia inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms used. The zones of inhibition were high in Salmonella typhi (21.00±0.000), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus with inhibition zones of 18.67±0.577, 18.00±0.333 and 18.00±0.577 respectively.  Serratia marcescens and Serratia liquefaciens had inhibition zones of 13.00±0.333 and 13.33±0.577 respectively. Escherichia coli had the least inhibition zone of 9.67±0.577. Penicillin which was used as the positive control inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested while DMSO (negative control) did not show any inhibition zones against any of the microorganisms tested. The current study may be a partial scientific justification of the plants use in the treatment against the infections caused by all the tested microorganisms.


Tetradenia riparia; Phytochemicals; Medicinal herbs; antibacterial; leaves

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