Cover Image

Monthly variation and impact of pollution on the nutritional value of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Leaves

Sachin Umesh Dubey, Madhu Kanta Kapoor


Moringa oleifera Lam., commonly found tree in sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan has a high nutrition value. The leaves, flowers and immature pods of Moringa are used as a vegetable in many countries. The leaves are highly nutritious and medicinal in nature. They are a rich source of iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, proteins, and essential amino acids. Hence Moringa leaves can be a good source of protein for the vegetarians and the under-nourished population. Present investigation deals with the study of monthly variation in the nutritional value of Moringa leaves from the month of June 2015 to January 2016. Impact of urban sewage pollution and roadside vehicular pollution on the amount of reducing and total sugars, chlorophylls (a, b and total), proteins, vitamin-C and pH of the leaves, was also studied. Results revealed that the highest amounts of reducing sugars, total sugars, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll during October 2015 whereas proteins, chlorophyll a, vitamin C and pH were highest during January 2016. Leaf samples collected from all the study sites exhibited minimum amounts of reducing sugars, chlorophylls (a, b and total) and pH during July 2015 whereas total sugars were lowest during December 2015. Proteins and vitamin C values were lowest during August and June 2015 respectively. Sewage and vehicular pollution showed an adverse effect on the nutritional contents of Moringa oleifera leaves. Of the two polluted sites, samples from near the sewage flow showed higher impact.


Moringa oleifera, pollution, proteins, sugars, vitamin-C

Full Text:



Abdul DAS. “Economic importance of Moringa oleifera in Tafa local government area of Niger State”. NDE Project. Federal College of Forestry Mechanization, Kaduna, Nigeria. (2007) p. 34. Print

Anjorin TB, Ikokoh P, Okolo S. “Mineral composition of Moringa oleifera leaves, pods and seeds from two regions in Abuja, Nigeria.” International Journal of Agricultural Biology. 12.3 (2010):431-434. Print

Anwar F, Ashraf M and Bhanger MI. “Interprovince variation in the composition of Moringa oleifera oil seeds from Pakistan.” J Am Oil Chem Soc.82 (2005): 45-51. Online

Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH. “Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses.” Phytother. Res. 21.1 (2007):17-25. Online

Anwar F, and MI Bhanger. “Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51.22 (2003): 6558-6563. Online

Asante W J, Nasare I L, Tom-dery D, Ochire-Boadu K, Kentil K B. “Nutrient composition of Moringa oleifera leaves from two agro ecological zones in Ghana.” African Journal of Plant Sciences 8.1 (2014): 65-71. Print.

Babu, S.C. “Rural nutrition interventions with indigenous plant foods: a case study of vitamin deficiency in Malawi”. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC. Biotechnology, Agronomy Social Environment. 4.3 (2000): 169-179. Online.

Berger, MR, Habs, M., et al. “The Miracle Tree: Moringa oleifera: Natural Nutrition for the Tropics”. Church World Service, Dakar. (1984). 68 pp.; revised and published as “The Miracle Tree: The Multiple Attributes of Moringa” (2001): 172 pp.

Bessey 0. A. and King C. G. “The distribution of vitamin C in plant and animal tissues and its determination.” Journal of Biological Chemistry. 103 (1933) 687-698. Print.

D’Souza J, A.R. Kulkarni. “Comparative studies on nutritive values of tender foliage of seedlings and mature plants of Moringa oleifera Lam.” Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 17.2 (1993): 479-485. Print.

Duke, J.A. “Nutritional and medicinal value of Moringa oleifera leaves: Potential and Prospects.” Forestry Bulletin. 11.1 (1987):46-58. Print.

Farooq F, Rai M., Tiwari A., Khan A.A., Farooq S. “Medicinal properties of Moringa oleifera: An overview of promising healer.” J. Med Plants Res. 6.27 (2012):4368-4374. Online.

Fuglie, L.J. “Enhancing iron bioavailability of vegetables through proper preparation − principles and applications.” Journal of International Cooperation. 1 (1999): 107−119. Online.

Fuglie, L.J. “Rural nutrition interventions with indigenous plant foods: a case study of vitamin A deficiency in Malawi.” Biotechnol Agron Soc. Environ. 4.3 (2000):169-179. Print.

Fuglie, L.J. “Moringa: A multipurpose vegetable and tree that purifies water.” Sci. & Technol. For., Environment & Natural Resources Agro-Forestation Tech. Ser. 27 (1999). Online.

Fuglie, Lowell J. “Home remedies.” A Handbook of Herbal Cures for Commons Ailments. 2 (2001). Print.

Gassenschmidt, U, K.D., Jany, et al., “Toxicological assessment of seeds from Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala, two highly efficient primary coagulants for domestic water treatment of tropical raw waters.” East African Medical Journal 61 (1995): 712-716. Print.

Harry, O.B. and Nyle, C.B. “The Nature and Properties of Soils.” The Macmillan Company, New York. (1969). Pp 398- 485. Online.

Lockett, C. T and Calvert, C. C. “New Uses of Moringa Studied in Nicaragua.” ECHO Development Notes (2000):68. Online.

Lowry, O.H., Rosenbrough, N.J., et al., J. Biol. Chem 193 (1951):265-275. Online.

Mahatab, S.N., Ali, A., et al., “Physico-chemical characterization of Moringa concanensis seeds and seed oil.” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 84 (1987): 413-419. Print.

Manzoor, M., Anwar, F., et al., “Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of rural Fulani, Northeastern Nigeria.” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 51(3) (2007): 195-208. Online

Manzoor, M., F. Anwar, et al., “Physico-chemical characterization of Moringa seeds and seed oil.” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 84 (2007): 413-419. Online.

Mishra, S.P., Singh. P and Singh, S. “Nutritional and medicinal values of Moringa oleifera leaves.” Potential and Prospects Forestry Bulletin, 11.1 (2011): 46-58. Online.

Mona M. Abdalla. “The potential of Moringa oleifera extract as a bio stimulant in enhancing the growth, biochemical and hormonal contents in rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) plants.” International journal of plant physiology and biochemistry 5.3 (2013): 42-49. Online.

Morton JF. “The horse radish tree, Moringa pterigosperma (Moringaceae). A boon to arid lands.” Economic Botany. 45.3 (1991): 318-333. Print.

Mughal, M. H., Ali, G., et al., “Improvement of drumstick (Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn.): A Unique Source of Food and Medicine through Tissue Culture.” Hamdard Medicus, 42 (1999): 37-42. Online.

Oliveira, J. T. A.; Silveira, S. B.; et al., “Compositional and nutritional attributes of seeds from the multiple purpose tree Moringa oleifera Lamarck.” J. Sci. Food Agric., 79 (6) (1999): 815-820. Online.

Olsen A. “Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera Lam.” Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1243 (1987): 477-481. Online.

Radovich T. “Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Moringa (Moringa oleifera).” Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai. (2011): 1-10. Online.

Ramachandran, C., Peter, K.V., et al., “Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera seed as coagulant for water purification”. African Journal of Agricultural Research.4.1 (1980):119-123. Print.

Roy, M., Chowdhury and J.K., Johry. “Seasonal variation in chlorophyll content and chlorophyllase activity in bangla and mitha varieties of Betelvine (Piper betel L.) grown in different soil treatments.” IIT-KGP, Kharagpur and NBRI, Lucknow, India (2003). Online.

Sairam, T.V. “Drumstick (Moringa oleifera): a multipurpose Indian vegetable”. Economic Botany. 34.3 (1999): 276-283. Online.

Shahid Iqbal, M.I. Bhanger. “Effect of season and production location on antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaves grown in Pakistan, Free Radical Research Laboratory, National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro-76080, Pakistan.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006): 544–551. Online.

Siemonsma J.S. and Piluek K. (eds). “Nutritional potential of sajna leaves in goats.” Livestock Advisor, 12.12 (1994): 9-12. Print.

Singh, P.K., Kumar, V., et al., Processing of Moringa oleifera Leaves for Human Consumption.” Bulletin Environment Pharmacology Life Sci. 2.1 (2012): 28- 31. Online.

Somali, M. A., Bajnedi, M. A., S.S. Al- Fhaimani “Chemical composition and characteristics of Moringa seeds and seed oil.” J Am Oil Chem Soc., 61.1 (1984): 85–86. Print.

Subadra, S., J. Monica and D. Dhabbai. “Retention and storage sta¬bility of beta-carotene in dehydrated drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera).” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 48.6 (1997):373. Online.

Tamanna, Talreja. “Biochemical estimation of three primary metabolites from medicinally important plant Moringa oleifera.” Research article 7.2 (2011): 186-188. Online.

Yingyan Han, Shuangxi Fan, et al., “Effect of heat stress on the MDA, proline and soluble sugar content in leaf lettuce seedlings.” Agricultural Sciences 4.5B (2013): 112-115. Print.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Bioassays

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Bioassays is a member of the Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), CROSSREF and CROSSMARK (USA). Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be assigned to all its published content.