Cover Image

Effectiveness of portable hand rubbing sanitizers during Hajj-A pilot study

Bassam H. Mashat

Abstract


Hands are the main pathways of germ transmission during Hajj. Hand hygiene results in the reduction of microorganisms on hands when performed regularly. The study evaluated the effectiveness of the using a portable hand rubbing sanitizers on reducing the amount of bacteria loads of hand during Hajj. Fifteen hajji participants volunteered to be a part of the Pilot Study. They were asked to rub their hands frequently during the study period. Their hands were tested and ATP levels were recorded before and after rubbing for three days. The results of the first day testing showed that ATP levels on the participants’ hands ranged from higher levels before rubbing and changed to a lower level after rubbing. The average readings of ATP before rubbing in the first, second and third day were of 312, 104 and 71 RLU while after rubbing the hands were 34, 26 and 8 RLU respectively. It was concluded that the using of portable hand rubbing dispensers significantly reduces the amount of bacteria, require less time, act more rapidly and therefore reducing the infection rates that can be spread throughout Hajj community.

Keywords


Hand hygiene; Hajj; ATP; Rubbing; Microorganisms; Contamination

Full Text:

PDF

References


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): OPRP: General information on Hand Hygiene., 2009; accessed 7, October, 2016.

Jumaa PA, Hand hygiene: simple and complex. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005, 9(1), 3–14.

Cairncross S, Hunt C, Boisson S, Bostoen K, Curtis V, Fung ICH, et al., Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhea, Int J Epidemiol, 2010,39, i193–i205.

Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 16 (1995), 105–113.

Garner JS, Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 17 (1996), 53–80.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care settings: Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene task Force. MMWR 2002, 51 (No. RR-16),1–48.

Carling PC, Parry MF Von Beheren SM, identifying opportunities to enhance environmental cleaning in 23 acute care hospitals, Infect control hosp epidemiol, 2008, 29, 1-7.

Vahadat K, Reazaei R, Gharibi D, Nosocomial infection in Alazhra hospital Boshehr. Tebbe Jonoub, 2003, 123, 500-503.

Alzeer A. H. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj. Ann Thorac Med, 2009, 4(2), 50–53.

Prazuck, T, Compte-Nguyen, G, Pelat, C, Sunder, S., Blanchon, T, Reducing gastroenteritis occurrences and their consequences in elementary schools with alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 2010, 29 (11): 994-998.

To MS, Favrin S, Romanova N, Griffiths MW, Postadaptational resistance to benzalkonium chloride and subsequent physicochemical modifications of Listeria monocytogenes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2002, 68 (11), 5258-5264.

White C, Kolble R, Carlson R, Lipson N, Dolan M, Ali Y, Cline, M, The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls, American Journal of Infection Control, 31,364–370.

Nic M, Jirat B, Kosata B, IUPAC of quaternary ammonium compounds, 2006 [online]. Available from http://goldbook.iupac.org/Q05003.html [accessed 26 October 2016].

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-care Settings, MMWR 2002, vol. 51, no. RR-16.

Kampf G, Kramer A, Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 2004, 17 (4), 863-893.

Mangalappalli-Illathu, AK, Korber, DR, Adaptive resistance and differential protein expression on Salmonella enteric serovar enteritidis biofilms exposed to benzalkonium chloride. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 2006, 50 (11), 3588-3596.

Ahmed OB and Sirag B. Microbial contamination of doorknobs in public toilets during hajj, Asian Journal of Science and Technology, 2016 ,07(10),3676-3679.

Sickbert-Bennett EE, Weber D J, Gergen-Teague, M F, Rutala, WA. The effects of test variables on the efficacy of hand hygiene agents. Am J Infect Control, 2004, 32, 69–83.

Boyce, JM, Pittet D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Am J Infect Control, 2002, 30, S1–S46.

Fatima S, Khan S B, Aarthi V S. Fatima. To compare the efficacy of three different hand hygiene agents in reducing the bacterial load from hands in intensive care areas of a tertiary care hospital. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 2015, 4(3), 90-97.

Trick WE, Veron MO, Hayes RA et al., Impact of ring wearing and hand contamination and comparison of hand hygiene agents in a hospital, Clin. Infect. Dis, 2003, 36, 1383-1390.

Voss A, Widamer AF, No time for hand washing ? Handwashing versus alcoholic hand rub.can we afford 100% compliance? Infect Control Hosp Epidemol, 1997, 18: 205-208.

Bloomfield SF, Aiello AE, Cookson B, O'Boyle C, Larson E L. The effectiveness of hand hygiene procedures in reducing the risks of infections in home and community settings including handwashing and alcohol-based hand sanitizers. AJIC, 2007, 35, (10) (S1), S27–S64.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2016.12.004

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Bioassays

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Bioassays is a member of the Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), CROSSREF and CROSSMARK (USA). Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be assigned to all its published content.