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Cardiovascular biomarkers of high altitude adaptation: Selection aid for livestock breeding

Arup Giri, Vijay Kumar Bharti*, Sahil Kalia, Bhuvnesh Kumar

Abstract


The efficiency of oxygen usage and energy metabolism is important for high-altitude adaptation and optimum performance of animals. With regards to adaptation and productivity of high yielder animals, high-altitude stress (hypobaric-hypoxia, cold stress) is a primary concern at high altitude. The cardiovascular system is an essential link in the transport of oxygen from the air to the mitochondria, and it, therefore, has an important role in acclimatisation and adaptation to the oxygen depleted environment of high altitude. These pathophysiological changes belong to the morphological, functional, and component of the cardiovascular system which can be detected as the biomarker whenever changes are found in this system. These cardiovascular biomarkers are structural, haematological, biochemical, molecular, and genetic. This lecture has reviewed the different types of cardiovascular biomarkers which are important in high altitude adaptation and therefore may be helpful in selection of adapted animals for future breeding and rearing at high altitude. Some structural biomarkers are hypertrophy of auricle and ventricle, pulmonary arterial pressure, hypertension, myocardial contractibility, hydrothorax, ascites, etc., whereas hematocrit level, blood viscosity, plateletatic, is haematological biomarkers. Cardiac troponin-I and troponin-T, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), inflammatory markers, rennin, etc. are biochemical biomarkers. Details of these biomarkers and other related markers will be discussed in present lecture. These biomarkers concentration or levels are indicators of physiological state genetic make-up of animals of the respective environmental condition. Hence, these biomarkers along with performance and physical traits may be considered for selection high altitude adapted animals for breeding and rearing.


Keywords


Animal adaptation; Cardiovascular system; Biomarkers; High altitude; Hypobaric hypoxia

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2016.12.007

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