Cover Image

Distinct blue print to restraint neglected tropical diseases

Bhagwati K. Gauni Mehariya*, Krunal R. Mehariya

Abstract


Since few decades many developing countries are bearing the strain of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and they are the most common infections of the World’s poorest people living in Africa, Asia and Americas. Till date, neglected tropical diseases imitate a group of conditions whose cluster level is obtained from deficiency of efforts directed to their declination. Global efforts have been done to control thirteen parasitic and bacterial infections that affect more than 1.4 billion people. The global usage of drug therapies for reducing the severity of NTDs was introduced few years ago. This singular approach should be elaborate to more extensive set of tools like coordinated community-based programs, vector control, local training, education and environmental change. In more, accelerated schedule is crucially needed to establish adequate diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic interventions to stay one step ahead of the evolutionary adaptation system of disease-causing microorganisms and parasites [1] [2].


Keywords


Neglected Tropical Diseases; Parasite; Microorganisms; Drug Therapy.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adel Mahmoud and Elias Zerhouni. “Neglecte Tropical Diseases: Moving Beyond Mass Drug Treatment To Understanding The Science”. Health Affairs, 28, No. 6 (2009): 1726-1733.

Derek A. Lobo, Raman Velayudhan, Priya Chatterjee, Harajeshwar Kohli, Peter J. Hotez.”The Neglected Tropical Diseases of India and South Asia: Review of heir Prevalence, Distribution, and Control or Elimination“. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5, No. 10 (2011): 1-7.

Jayasree K. Iyer, Emily R. Adams and Paul R. Klatser. “Priority Medicines for Europe and the World A Public Health Approach to Innovation", Background Paper 6.9, Neglected Tropical Diseases.

Hotez PJ, MolyneuxDH, Fenwick A,Kumaresan J, Sachs SE, et al. “Control of neglected tropical diseases“. N Engl J Med 357(10): 1018–1027(2007) . doi:10.1056/NEJMra064142

Hotez PJ, Ehrenberg JP. “Escalating the global fight against neglected tropical diseases through interventions in the Asia Pacific region”. Adv Parasitol 72: 31–53 (2010). doi:10.1016/S0065-308X (10)72002-9.

Hotez PJ, Bottazzi ME, Franco-Paredes C, Ault SK, Periago MR . “The neglected tropical diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of disease burden and distribution and a roadmap for control and elimination”. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2(9): e300 (2008). doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000300.

Hotez PJ. “Neglected infections of poverty among the indigenous peoples of the Arctic”. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(1): e606 (2010). doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000606.

Hotez PJ. “Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America”. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2(6): e256 (2008). doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000256.

Hotez PJ, Kamath A. “Neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden”. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3(8): e412 (2009). doi:10.1371/ journal.pntd.0000412.

[No authors listed] Global leprosy situation, 2010. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 85(35): 337–348.

Geneva: de Silva NR, Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Montresor A, Engels D, et al. WHO (2010) Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: first WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture. Trends Parasitol 19(12) (2010): 547–551.

Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, et al. “Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm”. Lancet 367 (9521): 1521–1532 (2006). doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68653-4.

WHO (2010) Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis progress report 2000–2009 and strategic plan 2010–2020. Geneva: WHO.

Polack S, Brooker S, Kuper H, Mariotti S, Mabey D, et al. “Mapping the global distribution of trachoma.” Bull World Health Organ 83(12): 913–919.

WHO (2010) World Health Organization Communicable Disease Global Atlas. Available: http://www.who.int/globalatlas/. Accessed 14. September 2011.

Bern C, Courtenay O, Alvar J Of cattle, sand flies and men: a systematic review of risk factor analyses for South Asian visceral leishmaniasis and implications for elimination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(2): e599 (2010). doi:10.1371/journal. pntd.0000599.

Mondal D, Singh SP, Kumar N, Joshi A, Sundar S, et al., “Visceral leishmaniasis elimination programme in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal: reshaping the case finding/case management strategy.” PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3(1) (2009): e355.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000355.

WHO (2010) World Health Organization Communicable Disease Global Atlas. Available: http://www.who.int/globalatlas/. Accessed 14 September 2011.

Chatterjee P. India’s ongoing war against rabies. Bull World Health Organ 87(12) (2010): 890–891.

Erlanger TE, Weiss S, Keiser J, Utzinger J, Wiedenmayer K. “Past, present, and future of japanese encephalitis.” Emerg Infect Dis 15(1) (20090: 1–7.

World Health Organization. The world health report 2004: changing history. Statistical annex, pp. 127–131. Available: http://www.who. int/whr/2004/annex/topic/en/annex_3_en.pdf (2004). Accessed 14 September 2011.

Saunderson PR Leprosy elimination: not as straightforward as it seemed. Public Health Rep 123(2) (2008): 213–216.

Smith W16. C, Aerts A. Role of contact tracing and prevention strategies in the interruption of leprosy transmission. Lepr Rev 2014; 85 : 2-17.

Tullu MS, Karande S. “Leptospirosis in children: a review for family physicians.” Indian J Med Sci 63(8) (2009): 368–378.

Wright HR, Turner A, Taylor HR Trachoma. Lancet 371(9628) (2008): 1945–1954.

Tullu MS, Karande S. “Leptospirosis in children: a review for family physicians.” Indian J Med Sci 63(8) (2009): 368–378.

Ramaiah KD. “Lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in india: Progress and challenges.” Trends Parasitol 25(1) (2009): 7–8. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2008.10.001.

John TJ, Dandona L, Sharma VP, Kakkar M Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in india. Lancet 377(9761): 252–269 (2011). doi:10.1016/ S0140-6736(10)61265-2.

Chatterjee P. “India’s ongoing war against rabies.” Bull World Health Organ 87(12) (2009): 890–891.

Bourhy H, Dautry-Varsat A, Hotez PJ, Salomon J. “Rabies, still neglected after 125 years of vaccination.” PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(11) (2010): e839. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000839.

WHO Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: first WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. Geneva (2010): WHO.

Misra UK, Kalita J. “Overview: Japanese encephalitis.” Prog Neurobiol 91(2) (2010): 108–120.

Erlanger TE, Weiss S, Keiser J, Utzinger J, Wiedenmayer K Past, present, and future of japanese encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis 15(1) (2009): 1–7.

John TJ, Dandona L, Sharma VP, Kakkar M. “Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India.” Lancet 377(9761): 252–269 (2011). doi:10.1016/ S0140-6736(10)61265-2.

Chaturvedi UC, Nagar R. “Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective.” J Biosci 33(4) (2008): 429–441.

Pandey BD, Rai SK, Morita K, Kurane I. “First case of dengue virus infection in Nepal.” Nepal Med Coll J 6(2) (2004): 157–159.

Ximenez C, Moran P, Rojas L, Valadez A, Gomez A. “Reassessment of the epidemiology of amoebiasis” state of the art. Infect Genet Evol 9(6): 1023–1032 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.meegid. 2009.06.008.

Kesari S, Bhunia GS, Kumar V, Jeyaram A, Ranjan A, et al. “Study of house-level risk factors associated in the transmission of Indian kala-azar.” Parasit Vectors 3: 94 (2010). doi:10.1186/1756-3305-3-94.

Alvar J, Aparicio P, Aseffa A, Den Boer M, Canavate C, et al. “The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years.” Clin Microbiol Rev 21(2) (2008): 334–59. table of contents. doi:10.1128/CMR.00061-07.

Alvar J, Yactayo S, Bern C. “Leishmaniasis and poverty.” Trends Parasitol 22(12) (2006): 552–557. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2006.09.004.

Yadla S, Sen HG, Hotez PG. “An epidemiological study of ancylostomiasis in a rural area of Kanpur District Uttar Pradesh, India.” Indian J Public Health 47(2) (2003): 53–60.

Bhatia V, Das MK, Kumar P, Arora NK. “Infantile hookworm disease.” Indian Pediatr 47(2) (2010): 190–192.

Ensink JH, van der Hoek W, Mukhtar M, Tahir Z, Amerasinghe FP. “High risk of hookworm infection among wastewater farmers in Pakistan.” Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99(11) (2005): 809–818. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.01.005.

Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Bundy DA. “The Global Atlas of Helminth Infection: mapping the way forward in neglected tropical disease control.” PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(7): e779 (2010). doi:10.1371/ journal. pntd.0000779.

[Anonymous] “Soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Progress report on number of children treated with anthelminthic drugs: an update towards the 2010 global target.” Wkly Epidemiol Rec 82(27/ 28) (2008): 237–252.

Linehan M, Hanson C, Weaver A, Baker M, Kabore A, et al. “Integrated implementation of programs targeting neglected tropical diseases through preventive chemotherapy: proving the feasibility at national scale.” Am J Trop Med Hyg 84(1): 5–14 (2011). doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0411

Pathmeswaran A, Jayatissa R, Samarasinghe S, Fernando A, de Silva RP, et al. “Health status of primary schoolchildren in Sri Lanka.” Ceylon Med J 50(2) (2005): 46–50.

Hotez PJ, Bethony JM, Diemert DJ, Pearson M, Loukas A. “Developing vaccines to combat hookworm infection and intestinal schistosomiasis.” Nat Rev Microbiol 8(11) (2010): 814–826. doi:10. 1038/nrmicro2438.

Perera M, Whitehead M, Molyneux D, Weerasooriya M, Gunatilleke G. “Neglected patients with a neglected disease? A qualitative study of lymphatic filariasis.” PLoS Negl Trop Dis 1(2): e128 (2007). doi:10.1371/journal.pntd. 0000128.

Ramaiah KD, Das PK, Michael E, Guyatt H. “The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in India.” Parasitol Today 16(6) (2000): 251–253.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2016.09.008

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Bioassays

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Bioassays is a member of the Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), CROSSREF and CROSSMARK (USA). Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be assigned to all its published content.